Thursday, March 19, 2020
Venus And Adonis Essays - Literature, Religion, Operas, Mythology Venus And Adonis Venus and Adonis: Images of Sexuality in Nature Love is the answer, but while you are waiting for the answer, sex raises some pretty good questions. - Woody Allen Throughout his plays and poetry Shakespeare imbeds numerous and diverse themes, many of them relating to love, sexuality, life, death, religion and countless others. In his poem Venus and Adonis Shakespeare tackles the theme of sexuality as a representation of love, and a function of Nature. The characters of Venus and Adonis, often times reminiscent of an Elizabethan fallen Adam and Eve, create a sexually charged poem that lends much of the power and influence of love and life and death to Nature. Shakespeare creates a natural phenomenon that physically links the love and actions of these two characters to the forces, both positive and destructive, to Nature herself. The poem allows Venus and Adonis a certain power or authority over the forces that lie within the powers of Nature, but Shakespeare's creation of this sexual narrative as a depiction of erotic desire as a tragic event leads the characters to inevitable misfortune, and a complete loss of control over their circumstances. Shakespeare's text can be broadly divided into three sections. The first being Venus' expressions of love for Adonis, the second involving Adonis' death and the hunt, and the third and final section focuses on Venus' reaction to the loss of Adonis. In the first third, Venus tries with increasing desperation to entice Adonis into sex. The pastoral setting on the primrose bank is ideal for the sexually charged analogies she creates. She bombards him with oxymorons involving hot ice, showers him with floral metaphors, launches into an extended variation on the old carpe diem theme, and cracks familiar puns on words such as harts and deer. Venus seems to have inspired control over her own body, and wondrously metamorphosizes her form to suit her purpose, making it heavy enough to need trees to support it, then giving the violets she lies on the strength of trees (152). For all its desperation, the first section is energetic and hopeful, emphasizing Adonis' youth and Venus' constantly self-renewing flesh. The descriptions of love found here are wholly sexual and physically based, but there is a desperate strength in Venus' repeated attempts and persistence. However, at the center of the poem Adonis announces that he intends to hunt the boar the next day. Venus collapses with the boy on top of her, and follows what ought to be the sexual climax of Venus' attempts to lure Adonis into her bed, but all Venus gets from the encounter is frustration: 'all is imaginary she doth prove' (597). In this next section of the poem, which takes place in the forest, Venus speaks of fear, the fear of the boar and the terror of the hunted hare. Death, which has been a veiled presence throughout the first half, becomes the controlling factor of the second. Instead of urging Adonis to beget, Venus warns him that he will be murdering his own posterity if he fails to make love (757-60). The youthfulness of Adonis, which had been described in such vital terms in the first section, able to 'drive infection from the dangerous year' (508), suddenly finds itself subjected to more infections than it can hope to cure: As burning fevers, agues pale and faint, Life-poisoning pestilence and frenzies wood, The marrow-eating sickness whose attaint Disorder breeds by heating of the blood (739-42). At the same time Venus loses control over her body. As she hurries through the woods after the sound of Adonis' horn, her body is subjected to the intrusive gropings of bushes: Some catch her by the neck, some kiss her face, / Some twine about her thigh to make her stay (872-3). This attack on Venus' physical body, and her inability to stop it renders her even more powerless, and her dominating sexuality is turned to frightened reserve as she searches for Adonis. Her efforts to entice Adonis through her pastoral metaphors have failed, even after she evidences her love through the tangible elements of Nature. In the first half of Shakespeare's poem Venus struggles to create a poetic Eden out of the substance of Adonis' body and her own. She tells him that
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Appeal to Force/Fear - Argumentum ad Baculum The Latin term argumentum ad baculum means argument to the stick. This fallacy occurs whenever a person makes an implicit or explicit threat of physical or psychological violence against others if they refuse to accept the conclusions offered. It can also occur whenever its claimed that accepting a conclusion or idea will lead to disaster, ruin, or harm. You can think of the argumentum ad baculum as having this form: Some threat of violence is made or implied. Therefore, the conclusion should be accepted. It would be very unusual for such a threat to be logically relevant to the conclusion or for the truth-value of a conclusion to be made any more likely by such threats. A distinction should be made, of course, between rational reasons and prudential reasons. No fallacy, the Appeal to Force included, can give rational reasons to believe a conclusion. This one, however, might give prudential reasons for action. If the threat is credible and bad enough, it might provide a reason to act as if you believed it. It is more common to hear such a fallacy in children, for example when one says If you dont agree that this show is the best, Ill hit you! Unfortunately, this fallacy isnt limited to children. Examples and Discussion of the Appeal to Force Here are some ways in which we sometimes see the appeal to force used in arguments: You should believe God exists because, if you dont, when you die you will be judged and God will send you to Hell for all of eternity. You dont want to be tortured in Hell, do you? If not, it is a safer bet to believe in God than to not believe. This is a simplified form of Pascals Wager, an argument often heard from some Christians. A god is not made any more likely to exist simply because someone says that if we dont believe in it, then we will be harmed in the end. Similarly, belief in a god is not made any more rational simply because we are afraid of going to some hell. By appealing to our fear of pain and our desire to avoid suffering, the above argument is committing a Fallacy of Relevance. Sometimes, the threats can be more subtle, as in this example: We need a strong military in order to deter our enemies. If you dont support this new spending bill to develop better airplanes, our enemies will think we are weak and, at some point, will attack us - killing millions. Do you want to be responsible for the deaths of millions, Senator? Here, the person doing the arguing isnt making a direct physical threat. Instead, they are bringing psychological pressure to bear by suggesting that if the Senator does not vote for the proposed spending bill, s/he will be responsible for other deaths later on. Unfortunately, no evidence is offered that such a possibility is a credible threat. Because of this, there is no clear connection between the premise about our enemies and the conclusion that the proposed bill is in the countrys best interests. We can also see the emotional appeal being used - no one wants to be responsible for the deaths of millions of fellow citizens. The Appeal to Force fallacy can also occur in cases where no actual physical violence is offered, but instead, just threats to ones well being. Patrick J. Hurley uses this example in his book A Concise Introduction to Logic: Secretary to boss: I deserve a raise in salary for the coming year. After all, you know how friendly I am with your wife, and Im sure you wouldnt want her to find out whats been going on between you and that sexpot client of yours. It doesnt matter here whether anything inappropriate has been going on between the boss and the client. What matters is that the boss is being threatened - not with physical violence like being hit, but rather with his marriage and other personal relationships being destabilized if not destroyed.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Marks & Spencer - Essay Example The company's preferred method of returning cash is by using the B shares scheme. Since it does not want to use the traditional share repurchase, it has created a conversion of shares Ã¢â¬â for every 21 current ordinary shares, investors will receive 17 new ordinary shares along with 1 B share for every current ordinary share (Marks & Spencer Plc 20020). The purpose of the conversion is to decrease the company's shareholding without using the traditional repurchase approach, while the use of B shares intends to give back the cash by redeeming it under two choices (Vandermewe 2003).Ã This B share scheme has offered both the company and the investors with regard to payout policy. The scheme addresses both the concerns of investors when cash is distributed by using the traditional shares repurchase, as well as their concerns when funds are distributed by increasing the amount dividend payout Ã¢â¬â that is, the high amount of income taxes that investors incur when they receive di vidends (Hakanson 1982). From the point of view of the company, it also uses this scheme in order to leverage certain payout policy theories.Ã For one, the B share scheme addresses the issues of payout policy such as information asymmetry, residual theory, and expectations theory (Keown 2002). When the company has decided to return the Ã £2 billion to its shareholders, it aims to reorganize its capital structure in line with the strategic changes that aims to implement (Marks & Spencer 2002). However, if the company chooses to repurchase its stock, investors will be skeptical about the company's moves and would have a more risky perception of the company, thus affecting the company's price/earnings ratio and the value of the stock (Brealey & Myers 2003). As with residual theory, the level of the cash that should be given back to the investors should be its residual earnings, after additional profitable investments have been made (Keown 2002).
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Nursing degree (care study) - Essay Example " i am almost finished with the research. Today when i opened the message column, the customer's message explaining the misunderstanding between the customer, ADMIN and this writer as follows and i quote " 61 From: Customer to Writer Date: 2006-08-08 01:47 Subject: Re: i saw the error made by the previous writer causing you to fail. Status: New There has been a clear misunderstanding with reagrds to this assignment the problem is 1) I was assigned a wriiter many months ago and this failed. I had to pay 140 for this!!! 2) I contacted admin but was told that because I had a complaint and it was over 2 weeks old I could not get another writter for free therefore I trusted the service and asked for a writter to complete. 3) The wriiter assigned was terrible and just plagarised lots of work and didn't stick to what I requested. 4) I was assigned a new writter, however I stressed to both the writter and admin that this work had to be completed by 2nd August as the work had to be submitted by 3rd August. 5) The new writter contacted me on the 2nd August after having the work for 5 days and stated that they have not done anything to the work as they could not find the relevant information. 6) I contacted admin to complain and they said I could have a new writter, howver I turned down a new writter as they would of only had about 10 hours to work on this assignemnt until the deadline of 3rd August 9am. So sorry admin had misinformed you, but I had to complete the work myself I stayed up all night. " therefore, please remove this from my current folder because it is unfair to fine me fothe LAZINESS of the RAMESH and the second writer. to be frank i could finish this on time if the customer had me as...i am working on it now. will you rather give your research on the history of the patient you did or do i have get a patient for myself please respond so i can finish this on time. i am almost finished with the research. Today when i opened the message column, the customer's message explaining the misunderstanding between the customer, ADMIN and this writer as follows and i quote " 61 From: Customer to Writer Date: 2006-08-08 01:47 2) I contacted admin but was told that because I had a complaint and it was over 2 weeks old I could not get another writter for free therefore I trusted the service and asked for a writter to complete. 6) I contacted admin to complain and they said I could have a new writter, howver I turned down a new writter as they would of only had about 10 hours to work on this assignemnt until the deadline of 3rd August 9am. therefore, please remove this from my current folder because it is unfair to fine me fothe LAZINESS of the RAMESH and the second writer. to be frank i could finish this on time if the customer had me as the writer in the first place instead of the other 2 writers. by the way, are they premium writers
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a story about revealing true evil and the loss of one man's faith. Nathaniel Hawthorne left "Young Goodman Brown" up for many interpretations. After reading the story a couple of times, one thing became clear to me. What I absorbed from this story was that evil exists in everyone, does not matter how good we may think we are. Things aren't always what they seem. I say this because the people who attended the devil's meetings, were the ones who attended church with him. The people whom he though were holy and Christian. These people were not holy at all. They were worshipping, praying, and obeying the devil. As Goodman Brown started his journey into the forest, he met an older man. The old man, "was about fifty years old, apparently in the same rank of life as Goodman Brown, and bearing a considerable resemblance to him, though perhaps more in expression than features" (DiYanni, 273). In Brown's ignorance, he does not realize that the one he is with is in fact the devil. This is shown when Brown asks a question in fear before meeting the old man, "There may be a devilish Indian behind every tree," said Goodman Brown to himself; and he glanced fearfully behind him, as he added, "What if the devil himself should be at my very elbow!" (DiYanni, 273). This to me is ironic because then, "His head being turned back, he passed a crook of the road, and looking forward again, beheld the figure of a man, in grave and decent attire, seated at the foot of an old tree. He arose at Goodman Brown's approach, and walked onward, side by side with him"(DiYassi, 273). Here Goodman Brown does not realize that the devil is, in fact, walking "side by side with him"(DiYassi,273). "Goodman Brown recognized a very pious and exemplary dame, who had taught him his catechism in youth, and was still his moral and spiritual advisor" (DiYassi, 275). This dames name was Goody Cloyse. When Brown sees that Goody Cloyse recognizes the old man and cri es out, "the devil" (DiYassi, 275), he can't believe it. He now sees her as a "wretched old woman" (DiYassi, 276). Brown is feeling his loss of faith and tries to overcome this by saying, "What if a wretched old woman does choose to go to the devil, when I though she was going to heaven! Is that any reason to leave my dear Faith behind, and go after her?
Friday, January 17, 2020
Anyone who is familiar with the major organizations in their area probably has observed firsthand how dramatically the business environment has changed in recent years. These changes have had a significant impact on organizational efforts to be successful. In practically every instance organizations have tried to more clearly identify and then focus on factors that impact their success. One factor that seems to be receiving more attention than any other are the people who work for organizations. What organizations are realizing is that their likelihood of sustained success is most dependent on learning to get the maximum out of their employees. Such a realization has had a significant impact on the practice of human resources management (HRM). What's more, business forecasters predict that the role of employees, managers, and HRM personnel are likely to see more changes in the decades ahead. Thus, individuals entering the business environment today (and tomorrow) require both an understanding of the importance of human resources and effective HRM to organizational success. As we move further into the twenty-first century, it's becoming absolutely clear that the effective management of an organization's human resources is a major source of competitive advantage and may even be the single most important determinant of an organization's performance over the long term. Organizations have started to realize that their success is dependent on their ability to attract, develop, and retain talented employees. Robert Reich emphasizes this point when he suggests that in the future, the organization's ability to attract, develop, and retain a talented workforce will be a critical factor in developing a high-performance organization. The long-term, sustained success of an organization in today's changing and challenging business environment involves top management's commitment to designing and implementing HRM programs geared to developing both high-performing employees and organizations. This means that top management anticipates the future need for employees and develops specific plans to obtain, develop, and retain the type of employees who meet the needs of a high-performing organization. Only by anticipating and working toward the development and retention of the right type of employees can any organization expect to be successful in a global, dynamic, and continuously changing competitive environment. An important element of organizational success is an HRM strategy where every manager is an HRM manager. For example, every manager must be expected to set goals for the development and satisfaction of employees. Second, every employee is viewed as a valuable resource, just like buildings and equipment. The organization's success is dependent upon high-performing employees, and without such employees there is no competitive advantage for the organization. Finally, through effective HRM programs the organization's goals are successfully integrated with individual employee needs. It is the thesis of this paper that HRM will continue to be an important element in achieving organizational success in the years to come. What makes one organization successful whereas another fails to make use of the same opportunities? For our purposes, the key to continued survival and organizational success lies not in the rational, quantitative approaches, but increasingly in a commitment to things like people, employee involvement, and commitment. Success for the organizations of today and tomorrow is being increasingly seen as dependent on effective HRM. Effective HRM positively affects performance in organizations, both large and small. Human resources management is the term increasingly used to refer to the philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices related to the management of an organization's employees. While a great deal of research has been devoted to identifying the sources of workplace stress and its links to adverse health and organizational outcomes, little has been done to focus on interventions to improve working environments. In reviewing the practice overall of stress prevention and intervention at the workplace, three conclusions may be drawn. First, although there is a considerable amount of activity in the field of stress management, Ã¢â¬Å"it is disproportionally concentrated on reducing the effects of stress, rather than reducing the presence of stressors at work. Ã¢â¬ (Kahn & Byosiere, 1992) To put it differently, stress management activities focus on secondary and tertiary prevention, rather than primary prevention. Whereas the latter involves interventions aimed at eliminating, reducing or altering stressors in the working situation, the former two are aimed at the effects of stress, with secondary prevention concerning the helping of employees (who are already showing signs of stress) from getting sick (for example, by increasing their coping capacity); and tertiary prevention concerning treatment activities for employees with serious stress-related health problems (for example, stress counseling/employee assistance programmers, the rehabilitation after long-term absenteeism). Second, most activities are primarily aimed at the individual rather than at the workplace or the organization, in other words, a worker-oriented approach, for instance, by improving employees' skills to manage, resist or reduce stress, as opposed to a job or organization-oriented approach, for instance, by job redesign or in some way changing the corporate culture or management style. Moreover, as Kahn and Byosiere (1992) conclude in their literature review: Ã¢â¬ËEven the programs that aim at stress inhibition tend to address subjective rather than objective aspects of the stress sequence; almost none consider the organizational antecedents (policy and structure) that intensify or reduce the presence of objective stressors' (p. 633). A third peculiarity in the practice of stress prevention concerns the lack of a systematic risk assessment (Ã¢â¬Ëstress audit', identifying risk factors and risk groups) as well as of serious research into the effects of all these activities (Kahn and Byosiere, 1992). In the words of Kahn and Byosiere (1992): Ã¢â¬ËThe programs in stress management that are sold to companies show a suspicious pattern of variance; they differ more by practitioner than by company. When practitioners in any field offer sovereign remedies regardless of the presenting symptoms, patients should be wary' (p. 23). Against the background of (1) clear evidence of the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and health , (2) national and international legislation that put the emphasis on risk assessment and combating risks by changing the stressful situation, and (3) the basic idea of prevention, that is, eliminating the stress producing situation (prevention at the source), the current practice of stress prevention and intervention seems disappointing. Given the current status of stress prevention, a question that deserves attention is why it is that companies express a preference for Ã¢â¬Ëpost hoc' individual-directed interventions, as opposed to primary or job/organizational interventions. At least four factors seem to contribute to this rather one-sided Ã¢â¬Ëindividual'-oriented approach : 1 Senior managers are often inclined to blame personality and lifestyle factors of employees who are absent from work or report health complaints, rather than the job or organizational factors, for which they are responsible. Senior management also often point to the potential role of stressful life events (family problems such as a divorce or the loss of a beloved), or responsibilities and obligations in the family life (raising children for example). Of course, on the micro-level (i. e. on the level of the individual employee) stressors at work are often accompanied by stressors in one's family situation, but because of the mutual influence and spill-over between both domains, the causes and consequences can hardly be disentangled. Furthermore, holding individual characteristics responsible for differences in experienced stress, one cannot explain why some occupations show significantly more stress complaints and higher sickness absence rates than others. A risk attached to this view is that the employee is regarded as being Ã¢â¬Ëguilty' of his or her own health problems, that is Ã¢â¬Ëblaming the victim', with the potential threat in the workplace being overlooked. 2 The second reason may be found in the nature of psychology itself, with its emphasis on subjective and individual phenomena. Many psychology-oriented stress researchers are primarily interested in stress as a subjective and individual phenomenon. To some extent, this may be a legacy of the strong tradition in psychology to focus on individual differences (i. e. differential psychology), and on individual counseling and therapy (i. e. clinical psychology). In this context, a warning seems appropriate against Ã¢â¬Ëpsychologism', that is, the explanation of (a sequence of) societal events from an individual-psychic point of view. Because of this orientation, the potential impact of more Ã¢â¬Ëobjective' or Ã¢â¬Ëcollective' risk factors in the work situation (e. . poor management, work-overload and bullying), may go unnoticed and untreated. In stress research, there is a gap between what Ã¢â¬Ëtheory' preaches (that is, properly designed longitudinal studies, involving a randomized control group, collecting both subjective and objective measures that are analyzed properly with statistical techniques), and what is possible in practice. One of the main reasons for this gap is the difficulty of conducting methodological Ã¢â¬Ësound' interventions and evaluation studies in an ever-changing organizational environment. In the 1990s, not only the context of work is rapidly changing, but also Ã¢â¬Ëwork' itself. Work organizations are in a constant state of change, due, in part, to new production concepts (for example, team based work, lean production methods, telework), Ã¢â¬Ëthe flexible workforce' concept, the 24-hour economy, the increased utilization of information technology, and the changing structure of the work force (for example, more women working). These changes clearly affect the work behavior of employees, work group processes, as well as the organizational structure and culture. As a consequence, it is practically impossible to find two companies with comparable stress problems at the beginning of any intervention programme, of which the control company agrees not to undertake any action for a period of three or four years (the period a researcher might like to choose for an intervention project). A related problem is that it is often not in a company's interest to facilitate Ã¢â¬Ësound scientific research' in the context of an ongoing business, involving interlopers from outside (i. e. researchers) and detailed data collection on the scene of sometimes confidential information. Senior managers can regard research of this kind as a nuisance to the primary organizational processes and objectives. 4 A fourth factor may be found in the discipline segregation within stress research, with a tendency of researching to neglect the collection of more objective data on the impact of stress and its prevention. Work and organizational psychologists concentrate primarily on Ã¢â¬Ësoft' outcome variables (e. g. motivation, satisfaction, effect and health complaints), and are well-known for their questionnaire-oriented approach. Traditionally, it has been observed that stress researchers are reluctant to co-operate with economists. For instance in order to study the potential Ã¢â¬Ëhard' outcome measures (that would include productivity, sickness absence rates and accident rates), as well as the financial effects of interventions. To put it differently, a history of gaining empirical insight in costs and benefits is merely lacking in stress research. Research in the field should in the future include some of the following: first, stress researchers should not only address Ã¢â¬Ësoft' outcome variables (for example, motivation and satisfaction), but extend their focus to also include Ã¢â¬Ëhard' outcome variables (for example, productivity and sickness absenteeism). Whereas work and organizational psychologists have often stated that an adequate stress prevention programme may positively affect productivity and sickness absenteeism, until now they have not laid down a sufficiently strong empirical foundation for this position. For too long, stress prevention advocates have based their arguments on a moral or humanistic appeal to the good employer (that is, on Ã¢â¬Ëindustrial charity'), or on legal regulations (for example, working conditions legislation). It is beyond doubt that these are important and strong arguments. Still, it may well be that they are not enough, since these arguments are not those that primarily affect senior management, who are more Ã¢â¬Ëbottom line' driven. Second, in order to increase the impact of stress prevention in the workplace, more emphasis should be placed on such factors as the quality of product and services, organizational flexibility, continuity, absenteeism, productivity, labor market facets and improved competitivity; and for there to be a multi-disciplinary approach rather than the traditional mono-disciplinary one (for example, co-operation with economists and ergonomists). And finally, the demonstration of examples of good preventive practice is considered as a sine qua non for developing effective stress prevention procedures and for the involvement of both social partners in this field (i. e. employers and employees). Stress has always been a topic of concern for business and industry. Health educators, in response to this concern, have offered a variety of stress management or stress reduction programs. However, McGehee points out that her discussion is not about what stress is or how stress can be managed or the latest research in stress management. The literature on these topics is profuse and easy to locate. Rather, she is concerned with the nature of stress management programs inside companies that have decided to make stress management a part of their employee development. Her discussion includes the reason behind a management program, the format of stress management programs, the selection of a stress management program, work issues and stress management, and the management of the stress response. Although stress has been a constant concern, a serious and growing problem in industry today is burnout. Klarreich relates his health education program on burnout, which was extremely well received in his organization. He describes the nature of burnout, the myths associated with this phenomenon, and the societal and familial influences that contribute to this problem. He delineates a number of steps to Ã¢â¬Å"put out the fire. Ã¢â¬ These include self-appraisal, alteration of expectations, communication to establish social support, and determination of a behavioral option. He indicates that the healthy employee of the future will be a Ã¢â¬Å"hardy employee. Ã¢â¬ Achieving excellence in the workplace has become the passion of most North American corporations. Pulvermacher presents a unique health education program, which he delivers as a workshop, to many corporate employees. He states that pursuing excellence requires the application of several fundamental skills. He reviews effective goal setting strategies, methods for avoiding the trap of perfectionism, techniques for managing self-defeating attitudes and beliefs, harnessing stress advantageously, increasing one's self-discipline, managing conflict constructively, and communicating effectively. A variety of reasons for implementing stress management programs are ascribed to by the companies currently doing so. The major reasons include reducing health costs, improving productivity, and boosting employee morale. In many cases, stress management is part of a wellness program. Stress-related disorders, including certain headaches, stomach disorders, chronic muscular pain, cardiac and respiratory conditions, and psychosomatic complaints have been linked to a large percentage of doctor's office visits and hospital tests and admissions. One goal of stress management programs is to provide alternate ways to respond to stress, to prevent potential disorders, and ultimately to reduce health costs. Stress level has been found to be linked to worker productivity. At moderate amounts of stress, performance is at its highest. Stress in moderate amounts, such as from reasonable deadlines, a focus on quality, rational performance rating systems, a system of accountability, often motivates performance. When stress rises to higher levels and a number of stressors are affecting the individual, performance deteriorates. At times of high stress, an individual is not as effective in solving problems, and on-the-job performance is negatively affected. The goal of stress management programs in this case is to provide ways in which employees can cope better with increasing stress and continue to perform well on the job. Stress management programs are usually popular with employees. Attendance at talks and workshops shows that the topic is a popular one. Many companies decide to implement these programs as morale boosters because they Ã¢â¬Å"can't hurt anything. Ã¢â¬ Stress management has become an integral part of most preventive medicine programs. These programs attempt to include education and training in a variety of ways so that the employees can safeguard their health.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
A Good Man Is Hard to Find, first published in 1953, is among the most famous stories by Georgia writer Flannery OConnor. OConnor was a staunch Catholic, and like most of her stories, A Good Man Is Hard to Find wrestles with questions of good and evil and the possibility of divine grace. Plot A grandmother is traveling with her family (her son Bailey, his wife, and their three children) from Atlanta to Florida for a vacation. The grandmother, who would prefer to go to East Tennessee, informs the family that a violent criminal known as The Misfit is loose in Florida, but they do not change their plans. The grandmother secretly brings her cat in the car. They stop for lunch at Red Sammys Famous Barbecue, and the grandmother and Red Sammy commiserate that the world is changing and a good man is hard to find. After lunch, the family begins driving again and the grandmother realizes they are near an old plantation she once visited. Wanting to see it again, she tells the children that the house has a secret panel and they clamor to go. Bailey reluctantly agrees. As they drive down a rough dirt road, the grandmother suddenly realizes that the house she is remembering is in Tennessee, not Georgia. Shocked and embarrassed by the realization, she accidentally kicks over her belongings, releasing the cat, which jumps onto Baileys head and causes an accident. A car slowly approaches them, and The Misfit and two young men get out. The grandmother recognizes him and says so. The two young men take Bailey and his son into the woods, and shots are heard. Then they take the mother, the daughter, and the baby into the woods. More shots are heard. Throughout, the grandmother pleads for her life, telling The Misfit she knows hes a good man and entreating him to pray. He engages her in a discussion about goodness, Jesus, and crime and punishment. She touches his shoulder, saying, Why youre one of my babies. Youre one of my own children! but The Misfit recoils and shoots her. Defining Goodness The grandmothers definition of what it means to be good is symbolized by her very proper and coordinated traveling outfit. OConnor writes: In case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway would know at once that she was a lady. The grandmother is clearly concerned with appearances above all else. In this hypothetical accident, she worries not about her death or the deaths of her family members, but about strangers opinions of her. She also demonstrates no concern for the state of her soul at the time of her imagined death, but we think thats because shes operating under the assumption that her soul is already as pristine as her navy blue straw sailor hat with a bunch of white violets on the brim. She continues to cling to superficial definitions of goodness as she pleads with The Misfit. She entreats him not to shoot a lady, as if not murdering someone is just a question of etiquette. And she reassures him that she can tell hes not a bit common, as if lineage is somehow correlated with morality. Even The Misfit himself knows enough to recognize that he aint a good man, even if he aint the worst in the world neither. After the accident, the grandmothers beliefs begin to fall apart just like her hat, still pinned to her head but the broken front brim standing up at a jaunty angle and the violet spray hanging off the side. In this scene, her superficial values are revealed as ridiculous and flimsy. OConnor tells us that as Bailey is led into the woods, the grandmother: reached up to adjust her hat brim as if she were going to the woods with him, but it came off in her hand. She stood staring at it, and after a second, she let it fall on the ground. The things she has thought were important are failing her, falling uselessly around her, and she now has to scramble to find something to replace them. A Moment of Grace? What she finds is the idea of prayer, but its almost as if shes forgotten (or never knew) how to pray. OConnor writes: Finally, she found herself saying, Jesus, Jesus, meaning, Jesus will help you, but the way she was saying it, it sounded as if she might be cursing. All her life, she has imagined that she is a good person, but like a curse, her definition of goodness crosses the line into evil because it is based on superficial, worldly values. The Misfit may openly reject Jesus, saying, Im doing all right by myself, but his frustration with his own lack of faith (It aint right I wasnt there) suggests that hes given Jesus a lot more thought than the grandmother has. When faced with death, the grandmother mostly lies, flatters, and begs. But at the very end, she reaches out to touch The Misfit and utters those rather cryptic lines, Why youre one of my babies. Youre one of my own children! Critics disagree on the meaning of those lines, but they could possibly indicate that the grandmother finally recognizes the connectedness among human beings. She may finally understand what The Misfit already knowsÃ¢â¬âthat there is no such thing as a good man, but that there is good in all of us and also evil in all of us, including in her. This may be the grandmothers moment of graceÃ¢â¬âher chance at divine redemption. OConnor tells us that her head cleared for an instant, suggesting that we should read this moment as the truest moment in the story. The Misfits reaction also suggests that the grandmother may have hit upon divine truth. As someone who openly rejects Jesus, he recoils from her words and her touch. Finally, even though her physical body is twisted and bloody, the grandmother dies with her face smiling up at the cloudless sky as if something good has happened or as if she has understood something important. A Gun to Her Head At the beginning of the story, The Misfit starts out as an abstraction for the grandmother. She doesnt really believe theyll encounter him; shes just using the newspaper accounts to try to get her way. She also doesnt really believe that theyll get into an accident or that shell die; she just wants to think of herself as the kind of person whom other people would instantly recognize as a lady, no matter what. It is only when the grandmother comes face to face with death that she begins to change her values. (OConnors larger point here, as it is in most of her stories, is that most people treat their inevitable deaths as an abstraction that will never really happen and, therefore,Ã dont give enough consideration to the afterlife.) Possibly the most famous line in all of OConnors work is The Misfits observation, She would have been a good woman [Ã¢â¬ ¦] if it had been somebody there to shoot her every minute of her life. On the one hand, this is an indictment of the grandmother, who always thought of herself as a good person. But on the other hand, it serves as final confirmation that she was, for that one brief epiphany at the end, good.